A polymath is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas; such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems… The term is often applied to great thinkers of the Renaissance and Golden Age of Islam, who excelled at multiple fields of the arts and science, such asLeonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Galileo Galilei, Paolo Sarpi,Nicolaus Copernicus, Francis Bacon, Michael Servetus, Ibn al-Haytham, Ibn Sina, and Omar Khayyám.
The first time I’ve found it was when I read Muhammad Al-Fatih 1453’s book by Ust. Felix Siauw on page 46. It is written that Syaikh Aaq Syamsuddin –one of two Sultan Mehmed II’s (Muhammad Al-Fatih) principal Ulama– who has a lineage to Abu Bakr as-Shiddiq, was a polymath like most Ulamas (scholars) in his time. Aaq Syamsuddin became a hafidz Al-Qur’an when he was 7 years old and he has great abilities in biology, medical, astronomy, and herbal treatments.
Besides him, there are some others famed scholars such as Ibnu Hayyan (experts in chemistry and astronomy), Abu al Rahyan (experts in geography, mathematics, astronomy, anthropology, psychology, and medical), al Biruni (experts in Geodesy and Geography, he is the first person who was found out The Triangulation Method to measure the distance in earth and also said that velocity of light faster than velocity of sound), al Kindi (experts both in mathematics and physics, and already found out the basics of Relativity Theory before Einstein do), and etc.
It can be founded on some books like Muhammad, The Educator by Robert L. Gullick Jr. , The Making of Humanity (1938) by Robert Briffault, Introduction to The History of Science (1927) by George Sarton, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (1970-1990), Islam: A Thousand Years of Faith and Power (2002) by Jonathan Bloom and Sheila Blair, and etc.